Historical Markers of Bowie County

Submitted by Sharon Pierce
June 2004

Historical Markers in Bowie County---Texas & National Markers

Tilson Mounds--Summerhill Lake Place
Address: Address Restricted
Architect:
County: Bowie
City: Texarkana



Ace of Clubs" House
Address: 420 Pine St.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1964
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: Has 3 groups of octagonal rooms (leaves of a club) opening on a rotunda backed by long rectangular rooms (the Club's stem). Rotunda has a marble mantel, French mirrors and spiral stairway and is topped with 20-foot tower. Built 1884 by J. H. Draughan. Owned since 1894 by Henry Moore family. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1964

Black Cherry Tree
Address:
City: New Boston vicinity
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1969
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: 6 miles east of New Boston on US 62 (on U.S. Government reservation)
Marker Text: In early days, source of lumber and shingles. Bark had medicinal use. This was judged the largest black cherry tree in Texas in 1965. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1969

Bois d'Arc
Address:
City: DeKalb
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Designations: na
Marker Location: US 82 W of Roy's Cafe
Marker Text: Bois d'Arc was used in early Texas for fences, building foundations, ox-yokes, paving blocks. This 153-year-old tree is Texas champion of the species. (1968)

Bowie County
Address:
City: New Boston vicinity
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Designations: na
Marker Location: 2 mi. east of New Boston on US 82 in roadside park
Marker Text: Original text (1936): In 1836 a part of Red River County. Created December 17, 1840; organized February 1, 1841. Named in honor of James Bowie, 1785-1836; member of Long's Expedition, defender of Texas liberty, a martyr of the Alamo. Old Boston, 1841, Texarkana and New Boston have served as county seat. Replacement text (1971): Named for James Bowie (1799-1836), who fought for Texas freedom from 1819, when he joined the Long Expedition, to 1836-- when he died in defense of the Alamo. Inhabited before 1800 by agricultural Indians, charted 1819 for Anglo-American settlement, this was Red River County land when Texas Republic was founded in 1836. Bowie County was created Dec. 18, 1840; organized Feb. 1, 1841. County seats: DeKalb, Old Boston, Texarkana, and Boston. Forceful citizens joined in beginning railroad construction in 1857. economy is based on agriculture, lumber, manufacturing. Erected by the State of Texas - 1971

Bowie County Jail
Address: Public Sq.
Architect: Sonnefield,Emmins & Albright
County: Bowie
City: Boston
Architectural Style: NO STYLE LISTED
Narrative: Centered in the public square the Bowie County Courthouse now has a plan that is atypical in Texas. A single corridor with exterior doors at each end extends through the building in an east-west direction. Originally, however, it appears that a corridor also extended into the building in the north-south direction. On the south side of the corridor are located the county auditor and tax collector. The Treasurers' Office on this side is accessible from a stair landing. On the north are other offices including the county clerk.
One stair furnished access to the second-floor courtroom, which is located on the west side, and other offices,, including the district clerk. A third story is used for storage.
A unique feature in Texas is the octagonal turret projecting from the northwest corner of the building. Medieval in character, it contrasts with other design features that are Classical, and it contains offices with the district judge located on the second floor.
The massing of the courthouse is otherwise typical. Center pavilion surmounted with triangular pediments accented with Roman arches project from the east, west and north facades, relieving on otherwise cubical form. The center mass of the structure is covered by a hipped roof with a galvanized iron cresting.
The exterior of the building is relieved by several detail features. Corner pilasters with rectangular indentations and a string course with graceful profile accent the brick walls and the level of the second floor. A second stringcourse at the level of the third floor further relieves the plainness of the walls. A simple cornice terminates the composition.
The courthouse interior was designed to be durable and beautiful. The corridors were floored with concrete placed over a fill of sand and finished with a one-inch layer of mixture of Portland cement and sand--an early use of this material in the Red River vicinity. Although oak had originally been specified for the woodwork, a change in the contract called for heart pine to be used for "panel to beaded work" still resulting in an attractive finish.
Although the original exterior features remain largely intact several additions have been made to the courthouse. In the 1930's the building was remodeled. Additional office space was added in two separate masses on the south. In 1951 the north single-story addition was designed by Reinheimer and Cox, architects, and built by the Atlas Construction Company.
The interior of the courthouse still retains much original detail. The stairs and much of the woodwork date from the nineteenth century. Alterations included a terrazzo floor on the first-story corridor. Throughout acoustical tile has been installed below the original ceilings and walls have been replastered. Some new wainscoting also has been added.
Located on the southeast corner of the public square, the jail is a two-story structure with a cubical form. Positioned close to the intersection of Prairie Street and Brooks Street, the plan is rectangular with the main entrance facing east and a small one-story hip-roofed section has been added in recent years. A parapet extends above the roof lines, thus visually emphasizing the cubical form. The interior arrangement is typical of jails throughout the state. On the ground floor is located the sheriff's quarters, including the kitchen where prisoners' meals were prepared. On the second floor are the cell blocks.
The exterior is enhanced by simple details. Corner buttresses, angled with walls, a water table, and stringcourse in strong profile are noteworthy details. Openings are spanned by simple segmental arches. Windows are double hung with two narrow lights in each sash. On the second floor, bars installed outside the sashes serve to further secure the building as well as an ever-present reminder of the function of the building.
Today both the courthouse and jail continue to serve their original function and are important landmarks to the people of Bowie County.

Due to their association with community development in northeast Texas and their architectural character, the Bowie County Courthouse and Jail are significant locally. Serving as the center of county governmental activities for over three-quarters of a century, the buildings were designed and built at the same time--unique within the state. In addition, the massing of the courthouse is unusual.
The first town of Boston, Texas--now known as Old Boston--evidently was established in 1830s. Following the organization of the county in 1841 it was found that this settlement was not sufficiently close to the center of the area and a new town, also named Boston, was established north of the first community. Although the new town did not thrive, it has remained the county seat; today it has a population of only about 200 but serves a county which includes the city of Texarkana with a population of about 34,000 (on the Texas side of the line). In 1869 the Texas and Pacific Railroad passed north of Boston, attracting commercial interests which resulted in the establishment of New Boston--all three Boston communities are within a distance of several miles. With the shift in activity, the present setting of the Bowie county courthouse is serene with dwellings mostly surrounding it.
Late in 1890 the commissioners' court ordered that a contract be let for the construction of a courthouse "in the geographical center of the county." It was specified that a "Box House" 34 by 60 feet with "16 feet boxing" be erected to house the court. Beside this, separated by a ten-foot- wide corridor was to be an "addition" 40 by 34 feet with six county offices." At the same time, a contract was to be let to build a "jailhouse of two rooms 10 x 10 feet of square oak pieces floored and ceiled overhead with 2 x 4 oak pieces and jailers office between the two cells 10 x 14 feet."
Although there was a petition requesting that no building be erected, less than a year later as a result of their low bid, Sonnefield and Emmins were selected as the contractors for a new courthouse and jail of permanent construction. As was often the case, the contractors were also the designers of the buildings. The bid on the temple of justice was $33,900 and the calaboose $10,000. Before the work was completed a third partner, Albright evidently joined the contractors. The cells in the jail were supplied by the Pauley Jail Building and Manufacturing Company of Saint Louis Missouri.
The courthouse and jail were both accepted by the county on August 8, 1892. Shortly thereafter, an additional tax was levied to create a fund to purchase furnishings. Plans have been drawn for a new courthouse to be built in the near future at New Boston, immediately adjacent to the city of Boston.



Central Christian Church
Address: 903 Walnut St.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1987
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: Founded in 1883 with the Rev. J. C. Mason as first pastor, the Central Christian Church congregation built this structure in 1932. Construction was supervised by architect and church member E. C. Seibert (1878-1941), who used carefully placed bricks to achieve a distinctive pattern. Of Tudor Gothic Revival style, the basilica-plan sanctuary with cast-stone details and pointed-arch windows is connected to an educational wing by a pointed-arch arcade. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1987

Cervini House
Address: 524 Spruce St.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1988
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: Joseph Cervini (1857-1922) came to Texarkana from Genoa, Italy in 1884 and opened a restaurant. With profits from downtown land investments, he had this home built for his family in 1914. Exhibiting influences of the bungalow and Prairie School styles, the home features a two-story wraparound gallery, brick piers, cast-stone heavy balusters, and a low-pitched tile hipped roof. The home remained in the Cervini family until 1981. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1988

Dalby Springs Methodist Church
Address:
City: DeKalb
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: 11 miles south of DeKalb on US 259, 1 mi. E on FM 561
Marker Text: Built of knotless pine lumber in 1888. First house of worship built by congregation who had been worshipping since 1839 in homes, groves and school. During this time the town of Dalby Springs emerged from farmland and grew into a summer health spa. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1965

Phillip A. Dalby Homestead
Address:
City: DeKalb vicinity
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1966
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: 11 miles south of DeKalb on US 259, then 3.3 mi. west on County Line Rd.
Marker Text: In Dalby family since 1841. On land given Dalby by Republic of Texas. Original room (northeast part of house) is of oak logs pegged together. Logs and floor boards were hand-hewn. By 1856 Dalby had 8 children. House, then enlarged, was scene of singings, socials, quiltings, logrollings. Teachers boarded here. Freighters camped in yard. Passed to Phillip Dalby's son, A. J., 1872; his grandson, Clyde N., 1927. Remodeled in 1948. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, 1966.

De Kalb
Address:
City: DeKalb
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1966
Designations: na
Marker Location: at junction of US 82 and FM 2735, DeKalb
Marker Text: Named for Maj. Gen. Johann de Kalb - a hero of the American Revolution - upon suggestion (1836) of David Crockett, a visitor on his way to fight in Texas War for Independence. Other Texas heroes traveling through here were James B. Fannin and Wm. B. Travis. Settled by 1831, when land was given for a public school by Dr. W. H. Boyce, Wm. L. Browning, D. M. Chisholm, Clement R. Johns and Judge (and Dr.) James W. Smith. Site of first college in Bowie County, founded in 1839 and of Ninth Masonic Lodge in Texas, organized 1840. Served as county seat, 1840-1841. On two early stagelines. A stopover for U.S. immigrants to Texas Republic, and 49'ers on way to California gold rush. In 1870's hideouts of train robbers Sam Bass, Jesse James, other notorious characters were nearby. Texas & Pacific Railroad reached here 1876. Site in 1889 of P. S. Ramseur's sawmill which shipped high quality lumber all over United States; to get logs to mill, he built a railroad, traces of which still exist. Although in 1896 and 1923 most of businesses were destroyed by fires, city prospers today. Center of ranching, truck farming, and pulpwood productions. Known as "The Pride of East Texas". (1966)

Draughn-Moore House
Address: 420 Pine St.
Architect: Unknown
County: Bowie
City: Texarkana
Architectural Style: ITALIANATE
Narrative: Located two blocks from the central business district of Texarkana near the Texas-Arkansas state line is the Draughn-Moore house. Built in 1883-84, the raised two-story house is situated on a quarter block of one of the few remaining wooded areas in downtown Texarkana. The site is bounded by two streets, 5th street at the northwest and Pine street at the southwest. An alley separates the rear of the house from St. James Episcopal Church. Enclosing the beautiful grounds is a high brick wall, first built in 1884 as a low retaining wall and increased in height in the late 1930's to provide privacy. Wrought iron gates mark the entrance at Pine street. Raised over a full basement, the apparent three stories of the Draughn-Moore House is further heightened by its location on a high terrace above the street. An octagonal cupola rising from the central part of the roof adds to this sense of verticality.

The unique design of the Draughn-Moore house has three large bays on the southwest, southeast and northwest facades and a rectangular wing on the northeast side all radiating from a central mass. The house is known locally as the "Ace of Clubs" House, for the design resembles the three leaves and stem of a "club". An octagonal cupola rises from the central portion. To this original design some additions were made in the 1920's when the present owner moved into the house. In the early 1920's an off-center two-story wing was added at the rear, and another wing was built at the eastern corner of the southeast side bay. These wings have no corresponding rooms on the basement level. The architectural details of the wings conform exactly to those of the original building.
In the late 1920's a raised one-story brick gallery replaced the original one-story frame gallery which had cast iron supports that encircled the front bay. The current raised gallery, which extends around the south-west facade, is supported on stuccoed brick elliptical arches, has a cross-patterned grillwork balustrade, canopies and a low pitched tile roof with wide overhanging eaves. In recent years the southern half of the porch has been screened. Stairs are located on the western end of the gallery. There is an entry located in each of the four vestibules. The openings on either side of the front bay have a leaded, beveled glass door with transom. At the rear, the doors have an etched rose octagonal pattern in the glass and a large transom.
To the east of the house is the original carriage house. The rectangular structure with gables projecting from the pitch of the roof of the southwest and northeast facades, was converted into a garage in the 20th century. Large openings were cut at the southeast and northwest sides for garage openings and an enclosed walkway to the back porch of the house was added. Also added to the rear of the house was an elevator shaft and a raised two-story screened- in gallery across the rear of the southeast side of the rectangular wing. There is also a one-story gallery on the northwest side.
The exterior detail displays Italianate characteristics. The brick walls were originally stuccoed and scored to appear like large stone blocks. Some of the walls have been replastered without being scored. Raised stringcourses delineate the floor levels. Marking the corners of the polygonal bays are pilasters formed by raised brickwork which are also stuccoed and scored to resemble large stone block quoins. Another Italianate feature is the use of the two styles of pedimented hood molds over the narrow 2/2 light windows. The low-pitched roof has projecting eaves supported by brackets and larger corner brackets. Sheltered by the eaves are frieze panels and a cornice with triangular dentils. Surmounting the roof is the wood-frame cupola with round arched windows in each of its eight sides. The windows were original rose colored, but have been replaced with purple lights. The cupola is crowned by a low roof with wide bracketed eaves.
The interior floor plan contains a two-story octagonal rotunda surrounded on three sides by octagonal rooms and on the fourth side by a rectangular wing. Small barrel-vaulted vestibules connect each of the four rooms. The original kitchen was located in the rectangular room in the basement and served the dining room above it by a dumb waiter. In the 1920's a two-story wing was added to the north corner of the dining room, and the first floor has been used since then as the kitchen. The basement rooms are presently used for offices, a laundry and a game room.
The nucleus of the upper stories is the octagonal rotunda with a central well of about 40 feet. The cupola, with arched stained glass windows in each of its eight sides, lights the well. The surrounding rooms on the first floor are formal rooms joined by the vestibules. During the 1920's these hallways were enclosed by tambour doors that fold into the fixed casing under the arch. The circular stairway in the rotunda follows the octagonal configuration of the walls to the second floor mezzanine. Encircling the balcony are the various bedrooms. Three of the original connecting passageways now contain a closet and bathroom. The fourth vestibule serves as a library niche with a projecting window bay. Attached to the rectangular master bedroom is the 1920's addition that contains a bathroom and dressing room.

Interior detail is simple. Most of the fireplaces have simple hardwood mantels except for an English marble mantel in the rotunda. An interesting feature is the original brass window and door hardware. The door handles have an unusual fixed knob with a trigger latch mechanism instead of a turn knob. Lighting the interiors are the original gasoliers, wired for both gas and electricity.

The house was built in 1883-84 by J. H. Draughn (also spelled Draughon and Draughan), one of the city's earliest settlers and an early businessman. Born in 1843 in Waverly, Tennessee, Draughn went into the general mercantile business in that state. In the 1870's be began moving west. He worked for awhile in Arkansas and when the city of Texarkana was founded in 1873 he came to work with a lumber firm, Buchanan and Company. When the firm dissolved in 1875, Draughn began an independent dry goods and lumber business. Having established himself in the community, Draughn served as one of the first mayors for a brief period from April to July, 1876. In addition, he was one of the organizers of the First National Bank of Texarkana and served as President for 10 years. Draughn built the raised two-story house at 420 Pine Street in 1883-84. Within a few years Draughn sold out his dry goods and lumber business interests in Texas and moved to Sulpher Station, where the bought an interest in a lumber business and became the company's president.
Draughn sold the house to W. L. and Dora Whitaker, who owned the house from 1887 to 1894. The house has been in the Moore family since June of 1894 when lots 10, 11, and 12 of block 4, Texarkana, Texas, were deeded to Katie F. Moore (wife of Henry Moore, Sr.) by W.L. and Dora Whitaker. Henry Moore, Sr. was an attorney and had been county clerk for Lafayette County, Arkansas, before moving to Texarkana, Texas. When their house in Arkansas burned, Moore and his family moved across the state line to the large two-story brick home. Moore served as an attorney for the Louisiana and Arkansas Railroad until his death in 1922.

Mr. and Mrs. Henry Moore, Jr. were married in 1920 and began living in the house at that time along with Moore's parents. Henry Moore, Jr. became a prominent local attorney and civic leader. He attended the University of Virginia and studied law at Columbia. Upon returning to Texarkana, he entered into law practice with his father for the Louisiana and Arkansas Railroad. After Henry, Sr.'s death in 1922 and Mrs. Moore, Sr.'s death in 1935, the house was turned over to the children of the Moore's. Henry, Jr., bought out the others' interest in 1935 and lived there with his wife and children until his death in 1942. His civic accomplishments include President of the Red River Levee District, a member on the Board of Directors of the Texarkana National Bank and President of a local hardware store. Moore was also a large landowner and farmer in southwest Arkansas.
Mrs. Henry Moore, Jr. survives her husband and is presently living in the house. She has planned to leave the house to the Texarkana Historical Society and Museum.

Set apart from the surrounding commercial area is the raised two-story Draughn-Moore house situated on a wooded quarter block and enclosed by a brick wall. This section of town was once a prominent residential district in the 19th century, but this Italianate house now stands as the lone survivor of 19th century residential architecture near downtown Texarkana. The innovative plan of an octagonal rotunda with three surrounding octagonal and rectangular wing represents one of the most unique Victorian designs in Texas and is one of the few remaining residences in Texas utilizing the octagonal mode. Unfortunately, no information exists identifying the original architect. Currently, there are no known prototypes of this design in the state.



Earl--Rochelle House
Address: 1920 Magnolia St.
Architect: Barber, George
County: Bowie
City: Texarkana
Architectural Style: QUEEN ANNE

Earl-Rochelle House
Address: 1920 Magnolia St.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1997
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: The last of three nearly identical homes built in Texarkana, the Earl-Rochelle house was constructed in 1899 for realtor and merchant John W. Earl (1861-1925) and his family. An excellent example of Queen Anne style with asymmetrical composition, the home features a complex roofscape incorporating gables and polygonal turrets. Eastlake detailing is evident in the decorative gable end treatment. James F. (1864-1938) and Ella Jo (McMickle) (1873-1966) Rochelle owned the home from 1929 to 1966. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1997



Ellis House
Address: 716 Olive St.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1997
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: Built in 1893 as the home of Gaither Booker Ellis, local realtor and loan agent, and his wife Mary (Bell), this house was designed and constructed by local builder Charles R. Korn. Erected on land owned by Mrs. Ellis, the two-story Victorian residence was built in an asymmetrical plan with a tower that was removed in the 1920s. The house includes porches on both the first and second floors with jigsawn porch brackets. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1997

Site of the Texas Home of Richard Ellis
Address:
City: New Boston
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Designations: na
Marker Location: 8 mi. north of New Boston in roadside park on SH 8
Marker Text: A Virginian by birth and education, jurist and statesman of Alabama, 1813-1825. Came to Texas, 1825. President of the Constitutional Convention, March 1836, and member of the Congress of the Republic of Texas. Born February 14, 1781; died here December 20, 1846.

Site of Epperson's Ferry
Address:
City: Maud
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Designations: na
Marker Location: 1 mi. northeast of Maud on US 67
Marker Text: At this crossing, constructed by nature and used by Caddo Indians, early French and Spanish explorers, and travelers over Trammel's Trace. Mark Epperson before 1837 established a ferry used until the construction of a wooden bridge antedating the modern structure erected in 1924.

First Disciples of Christ in Texas
Address:
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Designations: na
Marker Location: just north of Texarkana on US 59/71 about 1 mi. north of IH-30
Marker Text: Worshiped in 1831 at McKinney's Landing, where the McKinney family and a small group of neighbors met together for informal services. During the winter of 1841-1842, a traveling preacher from Illinois, G. Gates, organized the congregation into a church. He later wrote, "I remained with the brethren about a week... gathered scattered sheep and constituted a church of 16 members, with fair prospects for more." First leader of the group was Collin McKinney (1766-1861), who had come with his family from Kentucky to Texas in 1831, when Mexico governed the state. The worship services he started were in defiance of the laws of Mexico, which demanded the allegiance of each citizen to the Catholic religion. In 1836, he signed the Texas Declaration of Independence. Collin County and the city of McKinney bear his name. Between 1844 and 1846, the McKinney families and neighbors moved their congregation to Mantua, near Van Alstyne, where they met in a wooden church with a four-foot wall separating men from women. Five slaves of the family were members of the Mantua group. When the railroad built past Van Alstyne, they moved there and organized the First Christian Church, a direct descendant of the 1831 congregation. (1967)

First United Methodist Church of DeKalb
Address:
City: De Kalb
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1985
Designations: na
Marker Location: NW corner of Johnson and Austin St.
Marker Text: The Rev. William Stevenson led the pioneering efforts of Methodist circuit riders in northeast Texas in 1815. He preached on both sides of the Red River, although Protestant services were then illegal in the Spanish territory of Texas. Methodist "societies" began to spring up in this area in the 1820s and 1830s. Dr. J. W. P. McKenzie started a Methodist mission in DeKalb in 1836, just five years after the town was founded. This area was then considered part of Miller County, Arkansas. The Rev. John B. Denton, who served the church in 1837, was later killed in the Village Creek Indian Battle in Tarrant County. The city and county of Denton were named for him. The Methodists' first church building was a log structure which also served as a schoolhouse. It stood in the southeast corner of Old DeKalb Cemetery. After the arrival of the Texas & Pacific Railroad, the church moved to a new building at Fulton and Church St. in 1882. The Presbyterian and Christian churches also shared that facility. A Sunday School program was begun in 1883. The church moved to its present location in 1913 and has occupied three buildings here. Three Methodist congregations, Austin Chapel, Oak Grove, and Springhill, have merged with the fellowship. (1985)

John F. Floyd House
Address: 1203 Wood St.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1989
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: A Confederate veteran of the Civil War, John F. Floyd (1846-1923) moved to Texarkana in 1881. The successful owner of a lumber business, he had this home built for his family in 1903. Reflecting the turn-of-the-century transition from Victorian influences toward more Classical Revival detailing in architecture, the Floyd home features Palladian windows in the gable ends, art glass transoms, and paired colonnettes on the porch. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1989

The French in Texas
Address:
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1966
Designations: na
Marker Location: just north of Texarkana, Tx. city limits on US 59/71about 1 mi. north of IH-30
Marker Text: Were explorers and traders for about a century. Claimed coastal Texas early as 1685 when La Salle established his Fort Saint Louis colony. Another Fort Saint Louis, among Nassonite Indians, a few miles northwest of this marker, was founded in 1719 by a French captain, Benard de La Harpe, who came up the Red River. This fort was a center for trade with the Cadodacho (Caddoes) of northeast Texas and the Wichita, Tawakoni, Tonkawa and other tribes of North Texas. Over 250,000 French and Caddo Indian artifacts have been found near here-- including two millstones used in a flour mill near the fort. Although Spain claimed Texas earlier and during the time of La Harpe, this did not discourage the French; they traded as far south as the mouth of the Trinity until Louisiana was ceded to Spain in 1762. The chief French influence in east Texas was the Cavalier Saint Denis (1676-1744), who controlled Red River area of Louisiana, frequently coming into Texas. At first he prospected for silver and gold, as Spain had done. Later he found trading with the Indians was very profitable. The French had no policy against trading guns to Indians; partly for that reason they were more popular than the Spainards. (1966)

Garland Community School Teacherage
Address: TX 2, 2.5 mi. W of Dekalb
Architect:
County: Bowie
City: Dekalb
Architectural Style: BUNGALOW/CRAFTSMAN

Cemetery for Old Harrison Chapel
Address:
City: Redwater vicinity
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1968
Designations: na
Marker Location: US 67 about 3 mi. east of Redwater on north side of road
Marker Text: Founded 1840 by Republic of Texas pioneers Charles Moores (1776-1852) and wife, Mary Harrison. Extinct all-faiths chapel, where circuit riders served, named for her parents (of South Carolina). This 5-acre family-community burial plot contains about 100 graves. Mary, Charles Moores, and Willis Whitaker were children of American Revolution soldiers; 3 of Moores' son were Texas Rangers; 4 men buried here had Republic of Texas headrights. Cemetery, restored 1967, is now only evidence of Mooresville (1 mi. N), post office 1841-1866. Moore's Landing was on Sulphur River. (1968) Incise on back: Erected by Cooper Burgess, Moores, Rosborough, Rochelle, Janes, and Whitaker descendants.

Hatchel/Barkman Caddo Indian Village
Address:
City: Texarkana vicinity
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1981
Designations: na
Marker Location: 2 mi. north of Texarkana on US 59/71 ROW
Marker Text: Near here for 1,000 years, 800-1800 A.D., lived civilized Caddoes, who thought they were the sole survivors of a prehistoric flood and ancestors of all Indians. Their ceremonial mounds stood high above Red River. They had a significant role in exchanges between Puebloan Indians and the Mound-Builders in the east. They domesticated food plants such as corn, squash and beans and manufactured fine pottery. Because of pressure from Euro-American settlers, they left this area, and descendants are found in Oklahoma. Their village site is now under state protection. (1981) Incise in base: Marker sponsored by the Hoblitzelle Foundation

Francis Marion Henry
Address:
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Designations: na
Marker Location: Rose Hill Cemetery on S. Lelia St.
Marker Text: (Dec. 11, 1832 - April 21, 1911) The great great grandson of Patrick Henry; served army of the Confederacy before buying tract in Texarkana about 1873. Captain Henry was elected to Texas Senate in 1876. Built first brick home in city; donated site for Methodist church. A leading city attorney for 34 years, securing wide reputation as trial lawyer. All business firms of Texarkana closed in respect at his death. Recorded, 1967

Otis Henry Monument
Address:
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Designations: na
Marker Location: Rose Hill Cemetery, on S. Lelia St.
Marker Text: --

Hooks
Address:
City: Hooks
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1969
Designations: na
Marker Location: US 82 west edge of Hooks
Marker Text: Established about 1848 as a supply center for 5,000-acre plantation of Warren Hooks; 1841-1860 post office for area was Myrtle Springs, home of Hooks' son, Col. Robert W. Hooks, 11th Texas Cavalry, Confederate Army. Post office placed here 1884 was named for Warren Hooks. Farming continued until 1942, when Hooks "boomed" suddenly. Population soared from 400 to 3,000 with opening of Lone Star and Red River Ordnance plants. Economy is diversified, with cotton and soybean production. A religious town, Hooks has sixteen churches. (1969)

Hotel McCartney
Address: State Line Ave.
Architect: Finger,Joseph
County: Bowie
City: Texarkana
Architectural Style: ART DECO; OTHER
Narrative: Constructed in a commercial style of building that is typical of the early 20th century, the McCartney Hotel, the tallest building in Texarkana, remains a focal point for that city's skyline. Occupying the first town lot sold within the city, the hotel is located in the hub of the downtown commercial district, prominently sited across from Union Station Terminal, which became a major southwest railway station during the height of rail transportation. The hotel no longer functions as such; however, it has suffered no drastic architectural or interior alterations since construction and remains a fine example of the early 20th century commercial style with outstanding Art Deco interiors.

This ten-story, reinforced concrete structure with pre cast concrete and brick reflects the Chicago School arrangement of base, shaft, and cornice. The structure is composed of a two-story, polygonal shaped base from which rises an eight-story tower, the upper floor distinguished as a cornice through the use of architectural decoration. Oriented to the traffic and pedestrian flows of the street, the first two floors of the hotel (base area) are easily accessible from the south, east, and west facades. The main entrance to the hotel lobby is located on the south facade directly across from the entrance to Union Station Terminal. The triple arched openings of both buildings reflect one another and a strong axial tie is established with this architectural reinforcement. Secondary entrances on the east and west facades are defined by single arches and all hotel entrances are protected with ornate flat canopies supported by decorative cables attached to the face of the structure. The ground floor is faced with pre-cast concrete blocks and features large, store front windows separated by stylized pilasters, also of concrete blocks.
The light-colored brickwork begins on the second level which is pierced with one-over-one, double-hung windows. These bracket supported windows are faced with concrete blocks and feature a protruding keystone. The brackets are spanned with a concrete inset highlighted with a bull's eye motif. A strong horizontal emphasis is given to the base area with continuous courses of concrete blocks that encircle the south, east, and west facades. The polygonal shape of the base extends north and consists of two stories with a one-story, angular, projecting entrance to the garage. This flat-roofed base is terminated with a course of concrete blocks. The north facade of this structure was originally shielded by commercial structures facing Broad Street. Currently, these structures have been razed to allow the construction of the Bi-State Criminal Justice Center, which will also obstruct the view of the north facade. This unadorned brick facade is punctuated at regular intervals with six-over-six double-hung windows.

Rising an additional eight stories from the south end of the base is the shaft. Floors three through nine are treated identically: symmetrical, unadorned brick facades broken with regularly spaced, one-over-one, double-hung windows with slightly protruding sills. The tenth floor is distinguished by a continuous course of concrete blocks. The windows are faced with concrete blocks and rest on insets of fluted concrete. These windows are further enhanced with an enriched over-treatment. The south facade features windows with exaggerated cornices and three windows with broken pediment treatments. The east and west facades feature a central window of Palladian inspiration flanked by identical cornice windows. Visible above the surrounding commercial structures, the north facade of the tower which is asymmetrical in composition, features bracketed and broken pedimented windows. Small, four-paned windows indicate a service shaft on the north side of the tower. The cornice features insets of turned concrete balusters which span the south, east, and west facades and extend around to either side of the north facade. Rising from the north side of the tower is a penthouse complex which houses the mechanical equipment of the structure.

Constructed at the height of the Art Deco period, the interior of the structure is an outstanding statement of that era. The first floor housed the hotel lobby and registration desk as well as cafes and other supporting businesses. The second floor offered a mezzanine and ballroom, the latter of which opened onto a roof deck. Floors three through ten, accessible from the lobby by stairs and elevators, were designated as sleeping quarters. The lobby and mezzanine were decorated in a bold display of Art Deco forms and decorative motifs, brilliantly accented in gold and silver. A curved marble staircase with Deco inspired railings connects the lobby and mezzanine, both of which feature marble wainscoting. The ceilings are accented with ornate, three-dimensional cornice moldings and the mezzanine features an elaborate skylight. Performed plaster figures and Deco light fixtures further enhance the overall feeling.

The late 1950s and early 1960s saw a cessation of rail passenger service and an increase in automobile travel. This shift in reliance from rail to highway decreased the importance of the McCartney's location and eventually, a lack of patronage closed its doors. In 1976 the hotel was used as a movie set followed by usage as a storage facility. The hotel has been zoned historic by the city of Texarkana and the new owners plan to renovate the building with respect to its historical integrity, adapting it for use as retail and office space.

Rising ten stories above the Texarkana skyline, the McCartney Hotel serves not only as a focal point for the city, but also as a visual reminder of the prominence Texarkana enjoyed as a major southwest railway center during the height of rail transportation. Reciprocally related to the Union Station Terminal, the hotel offered a variety of facilities to travelers and local residents alike. The structure is a good example of the commercial style of building prevalent in the early 20th century and features outstanding Art Deco interior architectural and decorative detailing.

The McCartney Hotel stands today as a reminder of the thriving commercial and industrial economy Texarkana boasted during the first half of the 20th century. Designed in the grand hotel style of the 1920s by Houston architect Joseph Finger, the hotel is prominently located across from Union Station Terminal, a major railroad center of the southwest. This convenient association enabled a symbiotic relationship to develop between the two structures which are located in the central business district. The hotel was an accommodating establishment for businessmen and tourists alike. Texarkana was established in 1873 at the site where the great Southwest Trail, for centuries the main route from Mississippi River Indian villages to those of the south and west, passed by a Caddo Indian village. In 1874 two major railroads were joined in this city which is located on the state line of Texas and Arkansas. By 1928 four major railroads included Texarkana in the vast network of rails woven across the continent. This railway connection enabled the economy of Texarkana to expand, based on the rich, arable farmland, and abundant and diversified mineral deposits of the area.

The site of the McCartney Hotel was the first town lot sold in the city, and was previously occupied by the three- story Cosmopolitan Hotel, noted for its appeal to traveling theatrical troupes and said to have hosted Will Rogers and Lilly Pons. The Cosmopolitan was razed in 1929 by owner W.A. McCartney, Sr. to make way for the larger, more accommodating McCartney Hotel, which remains the tallest building in Texarkana. The reinforced concrete and brick structure became a focal point for the city's skyline. Rising ten stories above the city, the structure bears a modified resemblance to the skyscrapers of the Chicago School. The first two floors relate to the street, the third through eighth floors are identically void of decoration and the top floor is emphasized with window trim and intermittent insertions of balusters at the parapet level. Mr. McCartney was a prominent resident of Texarkana, coming to the city in 1874 at the age of four years. In the 1940s and 1950s McCartney, who had then become known as the city's "unofficial historian," hosted gatherings at the hotel for national, regional, and local dignitaries, civic leaders, business leaders, and friends. From these prestigious meetings grew efforts led by McCartney which eventually resulted in the convergence in Texarkana of four major U.S. highways. Over the last twenty-five years the increase in highway transportation brought about the gradual decline in the importance of Texarkana as a railway center. As a result, the hotel ceased to operate as such in the early 1970s and in 1976 was sold and used for storage. Current plans are to restore the facade of the structure and convert it into retail and office space.



Hubbard Home
Address: 108 Magnolia St.
City: New Boston
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: Built 1904 for owner Robt.M. Hubbard. Bayard Witt, architect. Victorian styling, with eight irregular-size gables; leaded glass in bay window. Distinguished visitors have included statesmen and business and social leaders of Texas. Owner R. M. Hubbard was named to Texas Highway Commission in 1918 by Governor W. P. Hobby. He served as chairman until 1925, and was influential in raising highway department standards. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1967

The Jamison Building
Address: 523.5 W. Third St.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1983
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: Mississippi-born Dr. Garling Urih Jamison, Sr., (1881-1951) opened this structure in 1930 as Texarkana's first black business and professional office building. Designed by the Texarkana architectural firm of Witt, Seibert, and Halsey, it features an interesting and decorative use of brick. The Jamison Building became a center of economic, cultural, and social life in the city's black community and has remained an important local landmark. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1983

Dr. A. H. A. and Ruby Jones House
Address: 1121 South Lake Dr
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 2002
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: 1121 South Lake Dr
Marker Text: Dr. A. H. A. and Ruby Jones House Ruby Lee Williams (1900-1979) was born in Texarkana to George and Carrie Williams. In 1928, she wed Jamaica-born Austin Hervin Archibald Jones (1901-1962), a successful dentist with a degree from Howard University. Ruby designed this bungalow-style home, utilizing African American craftsmen to build it in 1938. The home features decorative brickwork and a unique cubical tower. The Jones family often opened its home to touring African American entertainers, including Louis Armstrong and Dinah Washington. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 2002

Jones-Tyson House
Address: 211 Magnolia St.
City: New Boston
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: North Carolina styling and garden plantings were brought to Bowie County when Jas. W. and Laura Williams Jones built this home in 1883. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1965

Scott Joplin
Address: 901 State Line Ave.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1976
Designations: na
Marker Location:
Marker Text: (November 24, 1868 - April 1, 1917) Black composer Scott Joplin, often called the "King of Ragtime Music", was born in Texarkana, Texas, five years before the townsite was platted in 1873. His family lived in this vicinity, and he attended nearby Orr School on Laurel Street. His early musical training came from his father, Giles Joplin, an ex-slave who played the fiddle, and mother, Florence Givens Joplin, who played the banjo. By tradition, a German music teacher realized Joplin's talent and gave him lessons. Joplin left home at age 14 and wandered through the midwest entertaining in saloons and honky-tonks. In the 1890s, he was one of the originators of ragtime, a rhythmic new musical form that combined black and white musical traditions. Joplin's "Maple Leaf Rag", published in 1899, launched ragtime as a national fad. Joplin defended ragtime against those who called it frivolous and worked constantly to refine his music, which included over 30 piano rags. Demand for ragtime had declined by 1917, when Joplin died in New York City. Joplin's background is revealed in his most ambitious work, the black folk opera "Treemonisha", set on a plantation "northeast of the town of Texarkana". It was not produced until the 1970s, when a revival of Joplin's music inspired public recognition of his genius. (1976) Incise on back: Texarkana Joint Bicentennial Commission, Bowie County Historical Commission, Jerry L. Atkins, Nick Demopulos

Maud United Methodist Church
Address: Main and Flencher St.
City: Maud
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1974
Designations: na
Marker Location:
Marker Text: Organized as a mission by the Rev. Thomas Jefferson Milam of Old Boston, on farm of Jesse M. Ball, Three Springs community, Aug. 10, 1874. Original meetinghouse was built immediately on Ball's property. Samuel D. Knapp (1841?-1922), a charter member, founded town of Maud, and was its first postmaster. He donated present site, and the building was moved here in 1880. The mission became a church in 1897. A tornado razed second building in 1914. Present sanctuary, fourth for the church, was erected in 1940 with funds given by Miss Jennie Tapp, and was enlarged in 1956. (1974)

Dan LaFayette McDuffie
Address:
City: New Boston
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1967
Designations: na
Marker Location: Reed Hill Cemetery, 1 mi. south of New Boston
Marker Text: (February 16, 1883 - July 7, 1931) Last Ranger killed on duty in East Texas oil boom of 1930's. A third generation enforcement officer; learned methods, skills from an uncle, Texarkana police chief. Held first office at 18. Won fame in 1923 amnesty, when 82 liquor stills were turned in. Spent 30 years as county peace officer, railroad special agent, and Texas Ranger. Known for his fearless courage, integrity. Met death on duty in a kidnapping case, when caught in gunfire. Recorded, 1967

Moores-Burke-Ragland Home
Address: 802 Main St.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1978
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: This residence was erected in 1895 for Rachel Perry Godbold Moores (1830-1904). Her husband David (1827-1892) was a member of the pioneer Moores family. Henry Koerner designed the Neo-Classical house with decorative fish scale shingling. The interior has elegant parquet flooring. Robert Emmett Burke bought the house in 1904. It was occupied from 1920 to 1965 by the S. M. Ragland family. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1978

Town of Nash
Address:
City: Nash
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1970
Designations: na
Marker Location: US 82, corner of US 82 and S. Pecan
Marker Text: Begun about 1873; first named "T. C. Junction" for its location on Transcontinental Division of Texas & Pacific Railroad. In 1884 post office was established and named "Park", after Dr. J. N. Parker, the first postmaster. First school started 1885 in single room. New buildings have been erected in 1904, 1924, 1967. In 1906 the town was named in honor of Martin Manny Nash, division superintendent of Texas & Pacific. Noted resident was Dr. Joseph Abner Dodd (1871-1944), who served 6 terms in Texas House of Representatives. Present town population stands at 2,000. (1970) Incise on back: Nash Chapter, Texas Senior citizens Association, Bowie County Historical Survey Committee

New Boston
Address:
City: New Boston
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1971
Designations: na
Marker Location: US 82 in center of New Boston in front of city parking lot
Marker Text: Established as shipping point when Texas & Pacific Railroad was built across Bowie County in 1870s, drawing business from original town of Boston (4 mi. S). New Boston townsite was platted in 1876; its post office opened Jan. 26, 1877, with L. C. DeMorse as postmaster. Baptists organized church here in 1880; Methodists, 1883; Church of Christ, 1943. The first building designed as a school was erected in 1886. New Boston men who have served in the Texas Legislature: Blair McGee (1889); Norman L. Dalby (1909-1910); R. M. Hubbard (1929, 1931), and Joseph White, Jr. (1939). (1971) Incise on back: Marker Sponsors: Veterans of World War I, Bowie County Barracks #1657, Their Auxiliary, and The Bowie County Historical Survey Committee

Offenhauser Building
Address: State Line Ave. and Third St.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: Texarkana Historical Museum
Marker Text: First brick structure in Texarkana, built about 1879 for First National Bank. On second floor was Kelsey & Offenhauser Insurance Agency. Here in 1883, pioneer businessman F. W. Offenahuser, later a leading agent in Texas and Arkansas, wrote his first insurance policy. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1965

Offenhauser Insurance Building
Address: State Line Ave. and 3rd St.
Architect: Unknown
County: Bowie
City: Texarkana
Architectural Style: OTHER
Narrative: The Offenhauser Insurance Building is a three story brick structure with inset, arcaded walkways on the north and west sides of the structure. The structure, which is bounded on the east by Stateline Avenue, on the west by Pine Street, by Third Street on the north and Fourth Street on the south. The principal facade, or south elevation faces a triangular shaped space know as Offenhauser 'square' and now used for parking.

This structure, which is a 1901 building, incorporates and earlier late 1870s two-story brick structure into its fabric. This earlier 1870s bank structure occupied the central three bays of the south facade and the rhythm of the earlier fenestration was carried over into the 1901 rebuilding.

The first floor arch piers and east facade wall is of concrete, scored in alternating wide and narrow horizontal band From the spring line of the arcade to the molded tin entablature and cornice, the fabric of the building is yellow brick. Window on the second and third floors have segmental brick arches and concrete lintels. A small round turret projects from the structure at the southwest corner. The turret begins at the same level of the second floor windows and extends beyond the comic and parapet of the main block, terminating in a conical standing seam tin roof above a pressed-tin cornice.

The east facade, which has no inset arcade on the first floor level, originally had an inset two arch wide gallery on the second floor which was accessible by a stairway opening on the south facade. The gallery was used as an official reviewing stand for parades and other civic functions.

The east facade is the most unusual of the four elevations of the Offenhauser Insurance Building. A one-bay section on the north end is perpendicular to the north facade and a two-bay section on the south end of the facade is perpendicular to the south facade of the building. The north and south portions of the east elevation are parallel, but they are not in the same plane. Consequently, these two sections are joined by the oblique and angled wall which contains the reviewing stand.
While architecturally not an innovative structure, the Offenhauser Insurance Building is a visually pleasing small commercial structure, important to the history and development of Texarkana, and a pleasing contrast to its neighboring commercial structures. The building, once bounded by a public square to the north and to the south, is visually and actually, in the center of the downtown commercial district with the Insurance Building occupying an island-site surrounded by street. The site of the Offenhauser Building was first occupied by the First National Bank of Texarkana, Texas. This structure, an early two-story brick building was constructed in the late 1870 The bank, however, failed a few years later and in 1894 the building was sold by the Board of Directors to Fredrick Wilhelm Offenhauser.
F.W. Offenhauser, the son of German immigrants, was born in Chillicothe, Ohio. He was employed as a dry goods clerk with the C.E. Haydon & Company in Shellyville, Illinois. When Hayden and Company opened a branch store in Texarkana, Offenhauser moved to the new store. Offenhauser held a second job at this time with the firm of Best & Beard Insurance Agency. In the pretypewriter days, Offenhauser was employed to write their fire insurance policies because of his clear legible hand.

W.A. Kelsey, who was cashier of the short-lived First National Bank, formed a partnership with Offenhauser with Kelsey providing the financial backing. The new-formed company began operating successfully on the second floor of the former First National Bank building. In 1888 Offenhauser bought out Kelsey's interest and for a short time John T. Owsley was a partner. However, from approximately 1890 onward the firm has operated under the name of F.W. Offenhauser and Company.

In 1901, permission was granted by the City Council of Texarkana for a third floor to be added and extended out over the sidewalk on Pine and Third Streets. In actual fact, the building was completely reconstructed at that time, with little. more than the walls of the earlier Bank building remaining. Stylistically, the Offenhauser Insurance Building is an early twentieth century commercial structure.

The Offenhauser Insurance Building is located on a unique pie-shaped lot in the center of the Texarkana business district This pivital structure of the downs own area is bounded by State line Avenue on the east, Pine Street on the west, and between Third and Fourth Streets. Consequently the building is not attached to any other structure and has four street facades. Because of the central location of the structure, the building is a vital part of the downtown city-scape and is visible from numerous vantage points. The Offenhauser Insurance Building which is among the oldest structures of Texarkana, has been a city landmark closely connected with the history and development of the city.

Offenhauser and Company are-in the process of presenting The Offenhauser Insurance Building to the city of Texarkana to be restored and used as a museum.



Pecan Point Signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence
Address:
City: Hooks
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1969
Designations: na
Marker Location: Off IH-30 near a Stuckey's "park"
Marker Text: Five of the most prominent delegates to the Constitutional Convention of Texas, held March, 1836, hailed from Pecan Point, in this vicinity. Richard Ellis (an attorney and judge) was chosen president of the meeting and later served four terms in the Senate of the Republic. Collin McKinney (a magistrate) helped draft the declaration and served three terms in the house. A. H. Latimer (an attorney) served two terms. Samuel Price Carson (attorney) became Texas' Secretary of State and with Robert Hamilton (financier) was an agent to the United States. (1969)

Pleasant Hill Missionary Baptist Church
Address:
City: New Boston vicinity
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1982
Designations: na
Marker Location: off SH 8 about 4 mi. north of New Boston at Pleasant Hill Cemetery
Marker Text: Blacks in the area north of New Boston have been served by this church since its organization in Feb. 1872 by the Rev. Forrest Hooks, the first pastor for the 14 charter members. According to oral histories, the fellowship first met near this site in a log cabin on land belonging to Abram Ellis, former slave of Texas Independence patriot Richard Ellis. The current building was erected in 1912-13, during the pastorate of the Rev. W. M. Sexton, on land acquired from Mr. and Mrs. N. A. Williams, son-in-law and daughter of Richard Ellis. Charter member Bob Tiller donated land for the nearby church cemetery. Records show that a school opened at Pleasant Hill in 1903, probably in the log cabin which first housed Pleasant Hill Church. A school building was erected in 1928 next to this sanctuary, but was moved when the school at Pleasant Hill consolidated with the New Boston School District. Through the years Pleasant Hill Missionary Baptist Church has provided a focal point for the rural community. Membership peaked during the 1920s, but worship services for the small congregation continue to be held on the fourth Sunday of every month as they have been since the church's early days. (1982) Incise on back: Charter Members: Bob Tiller, Henry Sims, Frank ware, Sam Whitfield, Annis Ellis, Sarah Ellis, Patsy Ellis, Charlotte Ellis, Mary Sims, Belle Smith, Louisa Justice, Mary Ware, Charity Singleton, Laura Tiller

Red Bayou Methodist Church
Address:
City: New Boston vicinity
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1995
Designations: na
Marker Location: 2 mi. north of New Boston on SH 8
Marker Text: This rural congregation constructed its first church building on land donated by Mr. & Mrs. J. M. C. Yates in 1861. The log building, located at the present-day site of Red Bayou Cemetery, also served as a school. In its early years the church held camp meetings on a regular basis; families arrived in wagons, buggies, and on horseback to camp together under brush arbors for three to four weeks at a time. Worship services were conducted by circuit-riding preachers, among whom were the Rev. Jester White, the Rev. McDougle, and the Rev. Charles Edgar Lamb. In 1882 the church established a mission church known as Tapp Memorial in the nearby community of New Boston. Sometime prior to 1912 a new frame church building was built at the site of the original structure. The new church building also served as a schoolhouse until 1922. In 1938 the frame building was relocated to this site due to expansion of the Red Bayou Cemetery. Sunday School classrooms were added to the building in 1948 and again in 1952. In 1953 the congregation acquired a parsonage and called its first full-time pastor. A fellowship hall was added in 1987. Red Bayou United Methodist Church continues to serve the community with various outreach programs. Sesquicentennial of Texas Statehood 1845 - 1995

Red Lick Methodist Church
Address:
City: Nash vicinity
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1992
Designations: na
Marker Location: 2 mi. west of Nash on US 82, then 2.5 mi. north on FM 2148
Marker Text: According to oral tradition, the Red Lick Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was founded in 1885. Church services have taken place at this site, upon land donated by the Bob Bonner family, since the 1890s. During the early years the group met in a combination church/school/lodge structure. Women and men sat on opposite sides of the building, and baptism by immersion was performed in a nearby pond. The group changed its name to Red Lick United Methodist Church in 1968. It continues to play an important role in the community's religious life. (1992)

Redwater
Address:
City: Redwater
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1975
Designations: na
Marker Location: intersection of US 67 and FM 991
Marker Text: The first community in this area was Mooresville (2 mi. E), settled in 1840 by the Charles Moores (1776-1852) family. It had disappeared before this town grew up near the Daniels and Spence sawmill in 1875. Because of mill workers' disregard for religion, the village was first named Ingersoll for the famous agnostic of that day, Robert Green Ingersoll (1833-99). A branch of the St. Louis Southwestern (Cotton Belt) Railway arrived here in the late 1870s, attracting more upstanding citizens. William Thomas Fagan built two more sawmills in the early 1880s. English-born Earnest Thomas Page (1860-1937) opened a general store, which also housed the town's first post office (1881) Church-going townspeople objected to the name Ingersoll and suggested changing it to Redwater, for the color of spring and well water in the area. A town vote in 1894 made Redwater the official name. In 1914 a tornado destroyed many businesses here, but Redwater quickly rebuilt. The economy was based on farming and lumbering until 1941, when the Red River Army Ammunition Depot and Lone Star Ordnance plant were built just north of town. The opening of the International Paper Mill in the 1970s has created new interest in lumbering and tree farming. (1975)

Rialto Building
Address: 317 State Line Ave.
Architect: Unknown
County: Bowie
City: Texarkana
Architectural Style: CLASSICAL REVIVAL
Narrative: The Rialto Building at 317 State Line Avenue in Texarkana, Texas is a three-story, early twentieth century vernacular, commercial building which exhibits a minor Classical Revival influence and is distinguished by its unusual wedge-shaped plan. The three-story structure stands in the commercial center of Texarkana immediately west of the Texas-Arkansas border, appropriately delineated by State Liane Avenue. When originally completed, the building featured brick, load bearing walls; however, a stucco finish was applied to the exterior in 1934. Despite this alteration, as well as other modifications which include the replacement of the original windows, the Rialto Building still retains much of its early twentieth century character.

The building's most distinctive feature is its overall plan which conforms to the wedge-shaped lot on which it was built. Although many local citizens are quick to point out its similarities with the Flatiron Buildings in New York and Ft. Worth, the Rialto Building, in reality, displays only a minimal likeness to these structures. The Rialto Building is much smaller in scale than the others, and its plan is not a triangle - the east elevation is actually a series of set- back, right-angle bays. Nonetheless, when viewed from the south, the building's unusual plan is evident.

The building rests upon a slightly raised, partial basement and extends three stories in height. With its stuccoed exterior walls, the structure features a continuous string course which divides the first and second floors and extends completely around the building. Another string course links the third floor windows of the front (east) and north elevations and, extending above these windows, appears as hoodmolds. The fenestration, although asymmetrically arranged, is primarily based upon groupings of twos or threes, and virtually all of the original, one-over-one light, double-hung windows were replaced in 1946. A few of the original windows remain intact and highlight the rear (west) elevation. Otherwise, the replacement ground level windows have fixed, multi-paned lights, while the top floors have fixed, single light windows. A dentiled cornice of plaster and stuccoed brick parapet cap the front and north walls. A small fourth floor room, added when the elevator was installed about 1912, provides access to the flat roof.

The front, main facade faces east onto State Line Avenue and exhibits the building's most noteworthy detailing. Framed on either side by single, Ionic columns which support a simple molded entablature, the main entrance features double doors and a rusticated semi-circular archway with scrolled keystone. The northern half of the front consists of a series of projecting, right-angle wings which extend outward, one bay per wing. The northernmost wing is slightly bowed outward. The middle two wings have broad, semi-elliptical arch ground level windows and segmental arch third floor windows. A secondary, front entrance pierces the second (from the north) wing and features a round arch opening. In the bay which included the main entrance, a heavy hood mold with three supporting scrolled brackets divide the second and third floors. The southern portion of the building is one of the structure's most unusual aspects and features a rounded corner with windows on each floor.

The rear (west) elevation displays segmental arch window openings, and when viewing this side of the building, the ends of the cornice and parapet wall are apparent at each side of the rear wall.

Although originally intended for use as office space, the Rialto Building was converted into apartments in 1912, and twelve years later, it became medical offices. This varied use has resulted in a moderate level of alterations to the interior. The plaster walls have been paneled with a dry-wall finish, and the original pine floors have been covered with carpet or asphalt tiles. The original fifteen- foot ceilings have been lowered to twelve feet with installation of acoustical ceiling tiles in 1946. The basement presently houses real estate office, and medical offices occupy the ground floor. The second floor remains vacant, while the top floor has laboratory and X-ray facilities.

The Rialto Building is located at the southwest corner of State Line Avenue and Fourth Street at the northern edge of Texarkana's early downtown. The structure faces east onto State Line Avenue which is lined with commercial buildings. One of Texarkana's residential neighborhoods is a few blocks west of the Rialto, but the Rialto stands in a predominately commercial setting. Immediately south of the Rialto Building the eight-story Grim Hotel, Texarkana's tallest building, dwarfs the Rialto. A parking lot is to the west, while the First Methodist Church complex stands to the north.

The Rialto Building at 317 State Line Avenue is a good example of an early twentieth century, vernacular commercial building in Texarkana but is particularly noteworthy for its uncommon wedge-shaped plan. Built in 1901 for George W. Fouke, the three-story masonry structure stands today as one of the oldest extant commercial buildings in the city and is a vivid reminder of Texarkana's most successful businessman at the turn of the century, and he built the Rialto Building to serve as offices although it was later converted into apartments. In 1924 the structure was sold to a group of physicians and eventually became known as the Medical Arts Building. Still in use as medical offices, the Rialto Building stands today in good condition and is one of a very few late nineteenth and early twentieth century commercial buildings in the city which retains much of its original character.

The Rialto Building was erected for George W. Fouke, who played an important role in the development of the area during the late 1800s. Born in Shelbyville, Illinois on March 6, 1843, Fouke came to Texarkana in 1882 in search of new business opportunities. While traveling to Texarkana, he met Ben Collins, who was also headed for Texarkana and later became a frequent business partner with Fouke. Fouke married Belle Haydon, a wealthy young woman, soon after his arrival, and her financial backing enabled him to initiate many of his commercial endeavors. Most of his businesses were successful, but few were as profitable as the Gate City Lumber Co. (and its related enterprises), which he and Collins established in 1885. Together, they bought up thousands of acres of timber land in the area, and, to meet the incessant demand for lumber, built a small railroad into the Sulphur River bottoms in order to get the logs out more quickly. The rail was gradually extended south and became the Texarkana, Shreveport and Natchez Railroad. The line was later sold to George Gould for more than one million Texas and Pacific Railroad shares. On March 26, 1902, S.J. Allen sold a triangular lot (Block thirteen, lot one of the Trigg Addition) to Fouke for $5,000. And Fouke then built the Rialto Building to conform to the unusual shape of the property. The architect and contractor are not known. Originally, the Rialto was intended for commercial office space, but it soon was used for apartments. Fouke sold the Rialto in 1912 to W.M. Paup who maintained the building as an apartment hotel until 1924 when he sold it to four physicians -- Drs. E.L. Beck, L.J. Kosminsky, H.E. Murray, and H.E. Longino. In 1925, Dr. Murray sold his interest to the others, and in 1934, Dr. Beck bought-out the others. The structure was then known as the Beck Medical Building.

In 1946, Dr. William B. Harrell, the present owner, along with his uncle, Dr. N.B. Daniel, and Dr. J.W. Burnett bought the building. Within two years, ownership had passed to Drs. Daniel and Harrell, and the building was known as the Daniel-Harrell Clinic. The name was changed to the Medical Arts Building when a drug store was established in the basement. Dr. Harrell became the sole owner upon the death of Dr. Daniel in 1964. The building is still used for medical offices.


Old Rialto Building
Address: 317 State Line Ave.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1966
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: Erected 1902 by George Fouke (1843-1915), pioneer businessman, leader in lumbering, railroads, electric power, other ventures. Triangular style resembles New York's Flatiron Building, also erected 1902. One of the earliest Texarkana buildings with electricity. First used for offices, became apartment hotel. Was converted by Dr. E. L. Beck in 1934 to medical building. Later property of Dr. N. B. Daniel and Dr. William B. Harrell. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1966



Rochelle Place
Address:
City: Texarkana vicinity
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1966
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location: 9 miles northwest of Texarkana on Myrtle Springs Rd.
Marker Text: On land settled 1811 and later patented in Republic of Texas by M. H. Janes. Built 1866 by Charles M. Rochelle, husband of Janes' daughter, Elizabeth. Home of their son, state legislator Wm. C. Rochelle, and descendants. Unique fireplace mantel was hand-hewn by slaves. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1966

Rose Hill Cemetery
Address:
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1969
Designations: na
Marker Location: Lelia St., north side of cemetery
Marker Text: One of the oldest cemeteries in Texarkana. Founded as "City Cemetery" in 1874, shortly after the town was established in December, 1873. Here lie the remains of some of the city's first citizens-- plantation owners, the livery stable owner, country doctors, lawyers, the cabinet maker, and 2 known members of the Texas legislature. About 70 Confederate soldiers and 3 known Union soldiers are also interred here. Other burials include victims of the 1882 Paragon Saloon disaster, which occurred when a storm caused a nearby building to collapse, thus starting a fire. In 1889 the Rose Hill Cemetery Association was formed to beautify and maintain the tract. A very impressive monument marks the grave of Otis Henry, a young World War I soldier. The grave of Captain Francis Marion Henry, one of the city fathers and a great-great-grandson of American Patriot Patrick Henry, is marked by a Texas historical marker. The center-drive lots are reserved for designated soldiers and veterans of World Wars I and II from Bowie County, Texas and Miller County, Arkansas. Many of the older graves are placed in cement "cradles", a surviving custom of earlier times, as is the secluded atmosphere of this heart-of-town plot. (1969)

Roseborough Lake Site
Address: Address Restricted
Architect:
County: Bowie
City: Texarkana
Architectural Style: NO STYLE LISTED

Site of the Home of Hardin R. Runnels
Address:
City: New Boston vicinity
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Designations: na
Marker Location: 6 miles east of New Boston on US 82, on U.S. Government reservation
Marker Text: Governor of Texas, 1857-1859. The house was built in 1853. Destroyed by fire in 1914. Here Governor Runnels died. He was buried nearby. His remains were later removed to the State Cemetery at Austin.

Howell W. Runnels Home
Address: 1402 W. 9th St.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1964
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: Built about 1874 with open hall, wide verandas. Owner came to Texas Republic in 1842. Was in Legislature 1857-59. His wife, former Martha C. B. Adams, acted as first lady of Texas during term of brother-in-law, Governor Hardin R. Runnels, 1857-59. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1964

Martha Adams Runnels
Address:
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1969
Designations: na
Marker Location: Rose Hill Cemetery, on Lelia St.
Marker Text: (March 26, 1836 - July 19, 1907) A first lady of Texas. Wife of H. W. Runnels, member of legislature 1857-59. During these years she and husband lived in Governor's Mansion, where she was the official hostess for her bachelor brother-in-law, Gov. Hardin Richard Runnels. Recorded - 1969 Incise on base: Erected by Lone Star Chapter Daughters of American Revolution and Bowie County Historical Survey Committee.

Saenger Theater
Address: 219 Main St.
Architect: Weil,Emil; Brashears Construction Co.
County: Bowie
City: Texarkana
Architectural Style: OTHER
Narrative: The Saenger Theater, located at Third and Main Streets (219 Main St.) was the largest and most opulent of any of the numerous theaters built in Texarkana. It was built in 1924 by the Saenger Amusement Company, based in New Orleans, La. The theater was designed by Emil Weil of New Orleans, architect, who had Alfred A. Lennox in charge during construction. The general contractor was the Brashears Construction Company of Texarkana, whose offices were at 310 Presbyterian Building.

The auditorium was one of the largest in the South, having a clear span of ninety feet between walls. Built of steel, concrete and brick, the theater encompasses 24,120 square feet. There were 1,675 seats, 788 on the main floor and 887 in the balcony, 200-300 of which have been removed. The contractor for the theater seating was the American Seating Company.

The upper rear section of the balcony was reserved for use by black patrons and reached by independent stairways. Separate lounges were also provided. Closed to patrons for the last few years of operation, the balcony area served as theater offices and storage area. The balcony lobby was reached by slightly winding staircases, one at each end of the inner main floor lobby. Additional balcony exits were provided through two rear stairways and fire escapes on each end of the building. Magnificent plaster work depicting Greek Mythological characters decorated the balcony lobby and three french windows each open out onto a narrow exterior balcony, walled with concrete turnposts. Originally this mezzanine area was further decorated with fine carpets, lamps and green plants.
The projection room at the upper rear of the balcony was well ventilated as a precaution against the numerous fires caused by the highly flammable nitrate film used at the time, and was built with restrooms for the operator. The projection equipment is currently intact.

The interior of the main lobby and auditorium is truly magnificent. The lobby floors are fashioned of alternate black and white marble squares. The walls are of marble as are the bases of the ticket booths. The ticket booths are further decorated with turned wooden pediments supporting the glass windows.
To the left of the lobby is located the manager's office and an entrance to the balcony. The same entrance serves two ticket booths, two other offices, one restroom and the fuse boxes for the theater's electrical works.

Entering the outer foyer of the main orchestra floor, one passes through elliptical arches supported by plaster columns with Ionic capitals. The arches are decorated with plaster figures depicting Greek theater and mythology. From the foyer there is an unobstructed sight line of the stage, as indeed, there is from any point in the theater.

Ornamental plaster sculpture is abundant in the decoration of the proscenium arch and the boxes. There are two boxes on each side of the stage, all with private entrances. The ceiling in the main auditorium is literally covered with gilded plaster work, cleverly concealing speakers and heating vents. The contractor for the plaster work was Lachin and Company.

A variety of lighting fixtures are intact. Outstanding are those fitted with embossed brass, crystal beads and leaded stain glass. The glass is stained in beige tones which creates a soft, indirect light. Originally, a huge chandelier with leaded cut-crystal lusters furnished the primary light in the main auditorium. Its fate is unknown.

The stage, 35 feet by 100 feet, was adaptable to a variety of live theater productions. Eight dressing rooms, with make-up tables intact, are located under the stage. The orchestra pit is large enough to accommodate a full orchestra. The organ console was located near the orchestra pit in full view of the audience. It was of maximum size for the theater space. It is not known when the organ was dismantled or its whereabouts, but it is believed to have been moved to a New Orleans Theater.

The central lighting panel, located behind stage right, is intact. The electric equipment was the best available at the time. The contractor was the Pine Electric Company. Scaffolding has been stored behind the projection screen and the catwalks are still usable. The heavily ornamented stage curtains seem to be the originals. An additional dressing area, shower and bath is located to stage right, apparently for stage hands. Intact also is the 1,008 sprinkling head system, installed to meet insurance requirements. It was contracted by the Automatic Sprinkler Corporation of America. The original ventilation system was furnished by the Typhoon Fan Company. There is one ceiling fan intact in the building, located in the store adjoining the main lobby. The central climate control equipment, in the basement, is in good condition and most is usable.

The exterior of the building appears rather plain on first sight, but actually is not. Rectangular in plan, the theater is two stories in height. There are 3,500 square feet in the basement, 13,370 square feet in the main floor and 7,050 square feet in the balcony. The Italian Renaissance design lends itself well to a theater building, the warm golden-colored brick is accented with concrete trimmings, a not unpleasing combination. The hip roof is tiled with terra cotta and contains three ventilation dormers on each of the four sides. Concrete cornices, frieze, and dentils accent the facade. Eight concrete pilasters are topped with Corinthian caps, each with an "S" in relief. The three lower balcony windows have ornamental architrave trim and are topped by a large grotesque in lion form over the top surround piece. Two symmetrical concrete pediments abut the top rail at 45 degree angles. Above the French windows are casement windows serving the upper balcony, and between the set of pilasters on each end of the building are two narrow double-sash type windows, all undecorated. Another set of upper and lower casement windows are located on each end of the building. In the center of the building between the dentils and second frieze, there is set into the brick marble panels inscribed with the name "Saenger Theater". The letters are painted gilt. A set of plain concrete medallions inscribed with an "S" are mounted above the upper casement window on each end. An underlighted portico at the street level is corniced in stamped metal scroll work with small grotesques.
There are two commercial stores built on the north end of the structure, both now vacant. The storefronts are wainscoted in black marble and have beveled glass panels in the entrance doors, as do the theater lobby entrance doors.

A large multi-colored marquee added in recent years to the northeast corner of the theater is wholly out of character with the building and should be removed.
Structurally, the theater is quite sound and restoration of both exterior and interior should create a structure which will become a source of pride to the entire community.

The Paramount Theater, the only one remaining in the downtown Texarkana area, is the last example of a once flourishing theater center that, at its height, contained at least five play and motion picture houses.

Built in 1924 at the height of a thriving theater industry and attendant at the maturation of the motion picture industry, the theater was to serve bilaterally these two entertainment needs of the community for a number of years after its opening.

Due to its fortunate geographical location and consequent railroad connections, Texarkana was the recipient of "good Theater" from the 1870's, being a regular rail stopover for many of the nation's great dramatic and operatic performers on their way to and from larger cities. At least six opera houses and theaters were built in the years between 1878 and 1925. The building of the opulent, palatial Saenger was the logical outcome of half a century of cultural and economic growth in the city. Texarkana audiences were used to the best in entertainment and were not yet willing to forego legitimate theater for the still unproved motion picture.
The Saenger Amusement Company, builders of the Saenger and owners of three in Texarkana, with unusual foresight, had commissioned the theater to be designed as a motion picture house only, without provision for a stage. However, succumbing to public demand and a promise from the Chamber of Commerce for a sell-out crowd opening night, the plans were altered to include a stage and other accoutrements necessary to live performances. True to their word, Texarkana merchants purchased two thousand tickets in blocks of twelve at $7.00 per seat, to insure a full house.

The "new" Saenger Theater (the old Saenger, a halfblock north on the same street had its time changed to the Strand) opened on the evening of November 18, 1224 with a play called Foot Loose, starring Margaret Anglin and William Faversham. Day long festivities preceded the opening. There was a parade, luncheon, speeches by assorted dignitaries, including the mayors of both cities and representatives of the Saenger Company. Telegrams from stars of both legitimate stage and the movie world were sent, including two messages from D. W. Griffith. His "America" was the first picture to play the Saenger.

For the next fifteen years the Saenger's patrons were host to a number of performers of the first magnitude. Among them were John Drew, Maurice Barrymore, Douglas Fairbanks, Will Rogers and Annie Oakley. The theater's use was not, however, limited to traveling productions. Throughout the 20's and 30s an annual "Follies" was produced by a local entrepreneur, W. A. McCartney. Based on Ziegfield's show, the Follies utilized local talent and provided not only entertainment, but one of the few occasions that drew the citizens of both cities together in a cooperative effort.

Organist for the Fiollie shows and all other productions at the Saenger was Mrs. Arthur Hardin (Eva Vernon). Mrs. Hardin was manager for the Saenger interests in Texarkana prior to her marriage. By the time the new Saenger was opened in 1924, Arthur had become manager and Eva was organist. The Saenger was the first theater in the city to have a pipe organ instead of a piano. The organ is said to have been one of the finest of its kind. The Hardins were prominent in Texarkana's entertainment industry until the 1940s, and contributed greatly to the success of the new theater.

Long after technical improvements had made the organist and her cue cards obsolete in motion picture houses, and legitimate theater in Texarkana had faded to a memory, the Saenger continued to host local playhouse productions, fashion shows, and other forms of live entertainment by and for the community, along with the occasional professional production.

The Saenger was purchased by the Paramount-Publix Corporation in 1931 and the name later changed to the Paramount. The theater continued to present first-run films until the mid-1960's. Suffering the economic fate common to downtown movie houses all over the nation at this period, the Paramount went to second and third rate movies, and then only black action films were run until it closed in March of 1977.

Early in December, 1977, the city of Texarkana, Texas announced the purchase of the theater as a part of its Comprehensive Downtown Development Plan. In late December, the Historic Landmark Committee of Texarkana approved the building as a site of local historical importance. Currently, the plans call for complete restoration of the facility. The City is seeking funds from the two State Arts Councils and from the National Endowment for the Arts for the necessary design work leading to restoration of the theater for use as a performing arts center for the community. Funds are also being sought from various sources for the restoration work.

It is hoped that the Saenger will host productions of national importance, local productions, and that it will again become a meeting place for the people of the two cities. Being an addition to the National Register will help to realize this hope.


Saenger Theatre
Address: 219 Main St.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1982
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: As a regional entertainment and cultural center, Texarkana once had a number of opera houses and theaters, including this facility built by the Saenger Amusement Co. of New Orleans. A parade and speeches by local dignitaries marked the opening day festivities on Nov. 18, 1924. Emil Weil designed the Classical Revival structure to accommodate stage productions, musical programs and motion pictures. The elaborate interior features ornamental plasterwork. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1982



Harvey C. Sanders, C. S. A.
Address:
City: New Boston vicinity
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Designations: na
Marker Location: roadside park about 8 mi. north on SH 8 from New Boston
Marker Text: Native of Kentucky. In Civil War, fought at Shiloh, Chickamauga and other battles. After being wounded twice, became a guard at Confederate White House. When Richmond fell on April 3, 1865, was placed in escort for the departing president. Rode 5 weeks toward Florida, where President Jefferson Davis was planning to sail for Mexico to join many other Confederate leaders. (These Southerners intended to regroup an army, march north to Texas and continue their fight for states' rights.) President Davis and his guards were followed by thieves trying to steal the Confederate treasury, the horses and the wagons. The assassination of Abraham Lincoln on April 14 and the offer of a reward of $100,000 caused many adventurers to hunt for President Davis. Just before dawn on May 10, near Irwinsville, Ga., Federals captured him and his party, including 2 Texans, Postmaster-General John H. Reagan and Presidential Aide F. R. Lubbock, a former Governor of Texas. Mrs. Davis and children were soon freed, but all the men were imprisoned. Sanders was released in a year. Later he came to Texas and lived near this site after 1887-- honored for years as the last man of the Davis bodyguard. (1965)

St. James Episcopal Church
Address: 417 Olive St.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1977
Designations: na
Marker Location:
Marker Text: Local Episcopalians met on Oct. 30, 1876, at the Marquand Hotel to organize this congregation. The first parish meeting was held April 2, 1877. Citizens of all faiths contributed funds for the first church building, erected on property donated by the Texas & Pacific Railroad. A second edifice, built in 1893-94, was altered and enlarged in 1910 and 1926. St. James has established or supported at least seven other churches in this area. This parish pioneered in aid to the elderly and other community services. (1977) Incise on back: Sponsored by The Vestry; Richard L. Hartshorn and Charles Terry, Wardens; Richard C. Allen, Rector; Bowie County Historical Commission

Texarkana
Address: 819 State Line Ave.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1973
Designations: na
Marker Location:
Marker Text: Founded when Texas & Pacific railroad platted townsite and held sale of lots on Dec. 8, 1873, to open regional shipping point. Strategically located on famed Indian trail from the Mississippi to Mexico, site had already been named (for its Texas-Arkansas-Louisiana trade area) by several persons-- a physician, a priest, a surveyor, a medicine show barker, a statesman, and others. City was incorporated in Texas on June 12, 1874; in Arkansas, Oct. 17, 1880. It advanced rapidly in business and social facilities. In a century, it has grown from 40 persons at townsite auction to over 52,000. (1973) Incise on back: Sponsored by Texarkana Chamber of Commerce Convention and Visitors Bureau, Bowie County Historical Survey Committee

Texarkana Phase Archeological District
Address: Address Restricted
Architect:
County: Bowie
City: Texarkana

Texarkana Union Station
Address: State Line and Front St.
Architect: Tucker,E.M.; Butterworth,A.B.
County: AR0091
City: Texarkana
Architectural Style: RENAISSANCE

Trammel's Trace
Address:
City: Texarkana vicinity
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1965
Designations: na
Marker Location: 2 mi. north of Texarkana on US 59/71
Marker Text: Entered Texas at this point. The 1813 road from St. Louis brought in great numbers of pioneers: Stephen F. Austin, his settlers, Sam Houston, James Bowie, David Crockett and others who died in the Texas Revolution. >From here pointed southwest. Crossed the Sulphur at Epperson ferry, going south to Nacogdoches, linking "Southwest Trail" with the King's Highway to Mexico. Surveyed by Nicholas Trammel (born in Nashville, Tenn., 1780; died, LaGrange, Texas, 1852), one of a family of U. S. surveyors and scouts. Mapped many trails, but only this one bears his name. (1965)

United States Post Office and Courthouse
Address: 5th St. at State Line Ave.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1970
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: Currently, only Federal office building to straddle state line. Present Texas-Arkansas state boundary (established in 1841 by United States and Republic of Texas) passes through center. Each state had separate post offices until 1892, when first joint office was built on this site. It was razed in 1930, and in 1933 the present structure was completed. The base is of Texas pink granite while walls are of limestone from Arkansas. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1970

Wavell's Colony
Address:
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1969
Designations: na
Marker Location: Off IH 30, near N. State Line Ave.
Marker Text: Projected in 1826 by General Arthur G. Wavell, Scottish-born soldier of fortune. By terms of a Mexican grant, he agreed to introduce 400-500 families into an area on the Red River. Ben Milam, frontiersman, was agent. Many pioneers were actually brought in, but because Mexico and the U. S. disputed part of the grant, no titles were ever issued by Wavell. Some settlers, however, later received titles from the Republic of Texas. The colony included virtually all of present Bowie, Red River counties (Tex.), Miller county (Ark.), and possibly others to the west. (1969)

Whitaker House
Address: 517 Whitaker St.
Architect: Whitaker,Benjamin Franklin
County: Bowie
City: Texarkana
Architectural Style: LATE VICTORIAN
Narrative: The Whitaker House is a two-story frame Victorian structure which faces east on Whitaker Street. The plan is irregular with five bedrooms upstairs and a large central hall. The first floor has six rooms, a kitchen, and two halls. A large central hall extends from the entry to a portion of the back porch. Most of the rooms on the first floor have ornate plaster moldings and Eastlake influenced carved walnut woodwork. All doors have their original brass hardware, some with black glass knobs. Other doors are large sliding doors.

The main staircase is free-standing with three landings and large newel posts. Two smaller staircases are in the house, one is the back staircase from the kitchen and the other leads to a fully floored attic with stained glass windows. There had been ten fireplaces but only three remain. The mantles for these remaining fireplaces were imported from Italy when the house was built and are slate and marble with some gold leaf trim. The gas fixtures have been removed but the pipes for a carbide system for lighting still extend from the ceilings. Most windows are 2/2 double hung, those downstairs and the back door have small panes of stained glass above. The front door has a transom of 40 panes of stained glass.

The southwest and northwest corners of the house have narrow one story porches around them. All supporting porch columns are very ornate with brackets and turned railings at the cornice and balustrade. The east porch has a carved arch at the entrance to the front door; the door is flanked by pairs of windows. The second floor has three bays of windows. A portion of this facade is slightly projected under a large gable on the south. This gable is highly carved and has three small round-arched windows with 36 small panes of stained glass per window. A dormer gable of less ornate carving is on the north side of the east facade. It has a fanlight of stained glass. Other decorative details include a bracketed cornice and an imbricated-shingle belt course which interrupts the cypress siding.
The north facade projects slightly under a gable at the eastern side. This gable is identical to the large gable on the east facade. One off-center bay of windows is on this projected portion. Two bays of windows per floor are on a slightly set back portion of the facade. Then a more drastic set back has a portion of the rear porch with three windows below and one window on the second floor.

The west facade has a portion which is set back to the north containing two windows on the second story, and a window and door on the first. The projecting portion has two windows above, and the porch below. A section of the porch has been converted to a lean-to storage room. The roof is hipped on this portion of the house.

The south facade undulates with a setback portion with a door and shed roof, and two gables. The front porch begins on the first story and continues around to the east. A decorative brick chimney projects from the eastern side of the south facade and bays of windows are placed on either side of this chimney. The center of the roof is flat.

Alterations have included covering the cypress siding with Johns Manville siding, the removal of outside shutters, and the enclosure of a storage shed on the back porch. Three bathrooms were installed and ceilings were lowered in the kitchen area. Some of the stained glass is missing. Originally the property had servants' quarters just to the northwest, two carriage houses, corn cribs, and horse stalls, but all have been torn down. Vegetable gardens, an orchard and lots for cows were also of the property. The original iron fence still remains along Whitaker Street.

The Whitaker-House is an excellent example of late Victorian architecture and was built by Benjamin F. Whitaker prior to 1890. Whitaker was also a prominent figure in the commercial growth of Texarkana and took an active part in state politics. The home has been known as a local showplace from as early as 1904.
The house is of irregular plan with multiple gables. Decorative brackets adorn the cornices of the roof and porches. The gables are highly carved - some have small round-arched stained glass windows and others have stained glass fanlights. The cypress siding is interrupted by imbricated shingles which form a beltcourse. Italian slate and marble mantles with gold leaf trim, a carved free- standing staircase, a carbide gas lighting system, and Eastlake influenced carving of walnut woodwork throughout the house indicate the interior quality. These elaborate architectural elements are excellent examples of late Victorian detailing, making the Whitaker house a prime example of the period as it was realized in Texas before 1890.

The original owner, Benjamin Whitaker, was born in Bowie Co., Texas and moved from his family plantation to Texarkana in 1877. The house was probably begun shortly after his arrival; however, loss of court records make confirmation impossible. Here he entered the lumber business with his brother, W.L. Whitaker. These two brothers invested their money to build the first two bridges across the Red River to facilitate a railroad. The bridges became part of the Kansas City Southern Line, which was one of the greatest commercial arteries of business to come to Texarkana. Benjamin Whitaker also served in the Texas Legislature in 1893 under Gov. James S. Hogg and again in 1895 under Gov. C.A. Culberson.

By 1904 Bryant Hargett, Sheriff of Bowie Co., lived in the house. During this time a "souvenir" book featured the Whitaker House as the showplace of Texarkana. The house remains as a residence.


Whitaker House
Address: 517 Whitaker St.
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1973
Designations: Recorded Texas Historic Landmark
Marker Location:
Marker Text: Built before 1891 by Benjamin F. Whitaker (1845-1916), member of Texas Senate (1893-97), partner of his brother in lumber business and a railroad that became part of Kansas City Southern line. He handpicked materials for this residence for his own family. Ex-sheriff Bryant Hargett and family were living here by 1904 when a "souvenir" book featured the house as a Texarkana showplace. Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Perkins now own and preserve the property. Recorded Texas Historic Landmark - 1973



World War I Memorial
Address:
City: Texarkana
County: Bowie
Year Marker Erected: 1936
Designations: na
Marker Location: 6th and Olive St. in Sheppard Park
Marker Text: In memory of the men from Bowie County, Texas and Miller County, Arkansas, who made the supreme sacrifice in the service of their country in the World War 1917-1918. They and their comrades fought not for selfish gain nor for one foot of added territory, but for the highest ideal ever upheld by man--the peace of the world. This monument is a symbol of the praise and gratitude which they so justly merit which will forever be accorded them by their countryment. Erected by the Texarkana Memorial Unit, an organization of women banded together to honor their loyalty, their service and the devotion. November 1936.



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